Toquaht

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Coalition Member

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ToquahtWebsite: toquaht.ca

Head of Government/Organization:
taayii ḥaw̓ił (highest ranking chief)- Anne Mack (annem@toquaht.ca)
čaamata (second chief) – Kevin Mack (kevinm@toquaht.ca)
Director of Operations – Donna Monteith (cao@toquaht.ca)

Description: The Toquaht Nation is a self-governing First Nation situated on the West Coast of Vancouver Island in Barkley Sound. Known as the t̓uk̓ʷaaʔatḥ (Toquaht People), we are a resilient community dedicated to the development of our Nation. Our primary focus is to honour the teachings of our ancestors and safeguard our ḥaḥuułi (traditional territory).

Our ancestral lands encompass Toquaht Bay, Mayne Bay, and Macoah Passage, which are located in the western region of Barkley Sound on Vancouver Island. These lands have sustained the t̓uk̓ʷaaʔatḥ since time immemorial.

As a resilient Nation, we reclaimed self-governance under the Maa-nulth Treaty in 2011. At present, we have approximately 175 masčim (citizens). This Treaty emancipated the t̓uk̓ʷaaʔatḥ from the restrictions imposed by the Indian Act, granting us the ability to shape our future as determined by our masčim. The Toquaht Constitution, provided under the treaty, affords us rights, benefits, and the authority to establish our own laws.

Effective from April 1, 2011, the Maa-nulth Treaty represents the first modern Treaty on Vancouver Island and the initial multi-First Nation treaty in the BC Treaty Process.

Presently, the Toquaht Government serves as the legislative and executive branch, consisting of five Council members: three elected members, the ḥaw̓ił (highest ranking chief), and our čaamata (second chief). This transition demonstrates our commitment to honoring our guiding principles and remaining rooted in our traditions—a testament to our “Tradition Transcending Time.”

Treaty/Land Claim Agreements: Maa-nulth Treaty, negotiated and signed by the Maa-nulth First Nations: t̓uk̓ʷaaʔatḥ (Toquaht Nation), Huu-ay-aht First Nation, Ka:’yu:’k’t’h’/Che:k’tles7et’h First Nation, Uchucklesaht Tribe, and Yuułuʔiłʔatḥ (Ucluelet First Nation).

The Maa-nulth First Nations are also part of the nuučaan̓uł (Nuu-chah-nulth) people and have ancestral roots along the beautiful west coast of Vancouver Island that date back more than 10,000 years. “Maa-nulth” means “villages along the coast” in the nuučaan̓uł language.

Signatories to the Agreement: Toquaht Nation, Federal Government, Government of British Columbia

ḥaw̓ił (chief, noble)- Bert Mack

witness: Anne Mack

Key Dates: There are 14 nuučaan̓uł First Nations in total, all of whom entered the BC Treaty process in 1994 and, after more than a decade of negotiations, the five Maa-nulth First Nations, the Government of British Columbia, and the Government of Canada ratified the Maa-nulth Treaty in 2009. The Treaty took effect on April 1, 2011.

April 1, 2011 – signing of the modern Maa-nulth Treaty

Brief description of the region covered by claim: The Maa-nulth Treaty recognizes each Maa-nulth First Nation as a third order of government within the Canadian Constitution, alongside the federal and provincial governments. As of April 1, 2011, the Indian Act no longer applies to the Maa-nulth First Nations. They are no longer “bands” governed by the Indian Act and now have treaty lands, not “reserve lands set aside for their use and benefit”.

The Maa-nulth Treaty recognizes a broad range of Maa-nulth First Nations’ rights and interests, including land rights, harvesting rights, cultural rights, and numerous law-making authorities.

Total Land Area: Following the implementation of the Maa-nulth Treaty in 2011, Toquaht Nation experienced a significant shift in our governance and land ownership. Liberated from the constraints of the Indian Act, we gained jurisdiction over a total of 1,489 hectares of land, comprising 196 hectares of former reserve lands and an additional 1,293 hectares of former provincial Crown land.

Toquaht Treaty Settlement Land now (circa 2024) encompasses a total of 1,841 hectares, including 352 hectares of newly acquired Treaty Settlement Lands. As a result of this treaty, the Toquaht Nation holds the authority to establish laws governing all of our treaty settlement lands, while federal and provincial laws also continue to apply. In cases where conflicts arise between different laws, the treaty explicitly outlines which jurisdiction takes precedence.

# of Beneficiaries: Approximately 175 citizens

First Nations/Inuit within the Land Claims Area: Approximately 45 people reside in Macoah, our traditional community. The rest of our citizens live in Ucluelet, Port Alberni, and other coastal cities. At present, our Nation comprises around 175 citizens in total.

Indigenous Languages Spoken:  The nuučaan̓uł (Nuu-chah-nulth) language

Head Office Address:
PO Box 759
1971 Peninsula Road
Ucluelet, B.C. V0R 3A0

Media Contact: Cait Wills (communications@toquaht.ca)

LCAC Representative: ḥaw̓ił (chief, noble)- Anne Mack (annem@toquaht.ca)

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